Title I, Part A of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, as amended (ESEA) provides financial assistance to local educational agencies (LEAs) and schools with high numbers or high percentages of children from low-income families to help ensure that all children meet challenging state academic standards. Federal funds are currently allocated through four statutory formulas that are based primarily on census poverty estimates and the cost of education in each state.

  1. Basic Grants provide funds to LEAs in which the number of children counted in the formula is at least 10 and exceeds 2 percent of an LEA’s school-age population.
  2. Concentration Grants flow to LEAs where the number of formula children exceeds 6,500 or 15 percent of the total school-age population.
  3. Targeted Grants are based on the same data used for Basic and Concentration Grants except that the data are weighted so that LEAs with higher numbers or higher percentages of children from low-income families receive more funds. Targeted Grants flow to LEAs where the number of schoolchildren counted in the formula (without application of the formula weights) is at least 10 and at least 5 percent of the LEA’s school-age population.
  4. Education Finance Incentive Grants (EFIG) distribute funds to states based on factors that measure:
    • a state’s effort to provide financial support for education compared to its relative wealth as measured by its per capita income; and
    • the degree to which education expenditures among LEAs within the state are equalized.

Once a state’s EFIG allocation is determined, funds are allocated (using a weighted count formula that is similar to Targeted Grants) to LEAs in which the number of children from low-income families is at least 10 and at least 5 percent of the LEA’s school-age population. LEAs target the Title I funds they receive to schools with the highest percentages of children from low-income families. Unless a participating school is operating a school-wide program, the school must focus Title I services on children who are failing, or most at risk of failing, to meet state academic standards. Schools in which children from low-income families make up at least 40 percent of enrollment are eligible to use Title I funds for school-wide programs that serve all children in the school. LEAs also must use Title I funds to provide academic enrichment services to eligible children enrolled in private schools.

What is Reading Recovery?
Reading Resources for at Home
Qualifications for Title I and Reading Recovery
Informative Reading Websites

The goal is to bring these students up to the average of their peers in 20 weeks or less with tutoring in daily, individualized lessons of 30 minutes each.

How long can my child receive Reading Recovery?

A child qualifies for Reading Recovery only as a first-time, first grader.

Reading Recovery lessons continue no longer than needed.

Once the child has reached the average reading level of the first grade class at that point in time, lessons generally stop.

Students who do not reach the average reading level by the end of the 20 weeks may be recommended for follow-up services in title I reading or they may be referred to the student assistance team to determine if special education services are needed.

What does a Reading Recovery lesson include?

During the first ten minutes the child re-reads familiar books and the new book from the previous day.

Next, about ten minutes are spent working on word work, which includes rapidly sorting letters into groups and writing a story. The story is then cut apart and re-assembled by the student.

During the final ten minutes, the student is given a new book to read with support as needed.

Click Here for an example

How can I support my child in Reading Recovery?

There are two main things to do every day with your child.

One thing is to have your son or daughter read the books they bring home every day to you as you sit next to your child. Return the books in the bag provided the next day.

The second thing to work on is the cut-up story. Your child should be able to scramble and reassemble the sentence(s) they wrote in their lesson.

What can I do if my child struggles with the practice reading at home?

Here are 4 tips for helping your child become more independent.

1. When your child notices an error, but is unsure how to fix it…

Compliment them on noticing and suggest two word choices of what the word could be.

2. When your child is forgetting to check the first letter in a word…

Ask them to get their mouth ready to start the first sound and then reread the sentence to prompt the word. The word usually “pops” out.

3. If your child is easily confused with letters in order (reads said/and, play/help) put your finger in and cover the end of the word for the child.

Say to him/her, “use this first part”.

4. When your child is using only “sound out”, remind them to check the picture and think what would make sense.

What is my child missing in the classroom while s/he attends Reading Recovery?

Typically students meet for 30 minutes every day of the week.

Students who are pulled out of the classroom for Reading Recovery do miss something. Decisions about this are made on an individual basis. The classroom teacher usually tries to arrange it so that the student misses an activity such as free reading, independent seat work time, or center time.

Where can I learn more about early literacy skills?

Bibliography K-3 Phonemic Awareness

Ten Tips: Helping Your Child Read Effectively

Breaking the Sound-It-Out Barrier

Reading Tips for Parents, Primary Caregivers and Educators

Helping Children Develop Oral-Language Skills

Questions to ask Before, During and After Reading with Your Child

Phonemic Awareness Activities for 6-7 Year Olds

How do you decide if a child is eligible for Title I? 

Children receiving Title I assistance are those students who, for a variety of reasons, have fallen behind their peers in reading. The purpose of Title I is to help them catch up to grade level and succeed in the classroom. Children in first grade are determined eligible for services if their kindergarten teacher refers them or if their DIBELS test results from kindergarten show a need for reading support. During the year, their classroom teacher may also recommend students based upon classroom reading assignments. Teacher or parent referral, prior inclusion in Title I and early intervention test scores showing non-proficient reading determine students in grades 2-3 eligible. Fourth and fifth grade students are determined eligible by teacher or parent referral, prior inclusion in Title I and scoring less than 40% on the National Percentile Rank of comprehension on the Iowa Test of Basic Skills.

Once a child is determined as eligible for Title I, how do you determine if they are in need of special help or just a poor test taker? 

After students have been identified as eligible, they are given an individualized reading test based on their grade. First graders are given a set of six different tests including identification of alphabet letters, knowledge of concepts of print, writing vocabulary, and hearing sounds in words and reading. If they then score below a set stanine on the subtests, they are included in Title I services. Second through fifth grades are asked to read an individual reading passage, written at grade level, and the teacher does an inventory of comprehension. If a student scores below 80% on the inventory, a second reading assessment is given. Students showing frustration on the second test in either reading accuracy or comprehension are then selected for Title I services.

What are stanines? 

Stanines are a fancy way of saying below average (stanines 1-3), average (stanines 4-6) and above average (stanines 7-9).

Do all the children who need extra help participate in the Title I program? 

No, unfortunately there are not enough funds available to help all the children who need extra help. The Title I staff try to work with the children who show the most need, with emphasis at the primary grade levels. Children who are not put into Title I and are still having difficulty may, however, qualify for help from the at-risk program.

Why does DC-G place the greatest emphasis at the primary level?

The Title I program at DC-G places the greatest emphasis at the primary level because it is believed if problems are remediated when they first occur, the child will have a better chance to be successful in later grades. Studies also indicate that after first grade, habits in reading are set and are much harder to change.

I want to recommend my child for Title I services. What do I do? 

Parents who feel their child would benefit from continued support of Title I need to simply tell the Title I teacher of their feeling. Parents may also discuss this with their regular classroom teacher. Title I teachers will then try to evaluate the child and let the parent know, in a timely manner, what the child’s test results were and if they qualify for Title I.

How are parents notified of their child’s inclusion in the Title I or Reading Recovery programs? 

Any time a student has been identified as needing Title I or Reading Recovery services, a permission letter is sent home with the student. We ask that the letter be read, signed, dated and returned. Also sent home at this time is the Title I Parent/Teacher compact to be signed, read and returned. A Title I booklet is also given to any new Title I family when a child starts Title I services.